INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS
Universal Declaration on Human Rights
Article 25: Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Article 11: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.
Article 12: The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for...The prevention, treatment and control of epidemic, endemic, occupational and other diseases;
General Comment Number 4, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
"...An adequate house must contain certain facilities essential for health, security, comfort and nutrition, all beneficiaries of the right to adequate housing should have sustainable access to natural and common resources, safe drinking water..."
Committee on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights: General Comment 15: The right to water (Articles 11 and 12, Twenty-ninth session, 2002)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 24: States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures... to combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking water
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Article 5: In compliance with the fundamental obligations laid down in article 2 of this Convention, States Parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of the following rights: Economic, social and cultural rights, in particular: The right to public health, medical care, social security and social services.
NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
Ethiopia (Constitution, 1995)
To the extent the country's resources permit, policies shall aim to provide all Ethiopian access to public health and education, clean water, housing, food and social security.
Gambia (Constitution, 1996)
(4) The State shall endeavour to facilitate equal access to clean and safe water
Guatemala (Constitution, 1985)
R??gimen de aguas. Todas las aguas son bienes de dominio p??blico, inalienables e imprescriptibles. Su aprovechamiento, uso y goce, se otorgan en la forma establecida por la ley, de acuerdo con el inter??s social. Una ley espec??fica regular?? esta materia.
Aprovechamiento de aguas, lagos y r??os. El aprovechamiento de las aguas de los lagos y de los r??os, para fines agr??colas, agropecuarios, tur??sticos o de cualquier otra naturaleza, que contribuya al desarrollo de la econom??a naci??n al, est?? a los servicios de la comunidad y no de persona particular alguna, pero los usuarios est??n obligados a reforestar las riberas y los cauces correspondientes, as?? como a facilitar las v??as de acceso.
Water regime. All sources of water are public properties, inalienable and without limit of time. Their exploitation, use and enjoyment, are granted in the form established by law, in agreement with the social interest. A specific law will regulate this matter
Lakes and rivers??? water exploitation. The exploitation of waters of lakes and rivers, for agricultural aims, farming, tourist or of any other nature, that may contribute to the nation economy development, is available to the enjoyment by the community and not by specific particular persons, but the users are forced to reforest the corresponding shores and channels, as well as to facilitate the access paths.
Panama (Constitution, amended in 1994)
Es deber fundamental del Estado garantizar que la poblaci??n viva en un ambiente sano y libre de contaminaci??n, en donde el aire, el agua y los alimentos satisfagan los requerimientos del desarrollo adecuado de la vida humana.
Las concesiones para la explotaci??n del suelo, del subsuelo, de los bosques y para la utilizaci??n de agua, de medios de comunicaci??n o transporte y de otras empresas de servicio p??blico, se inspirar??n en el bienestar social y el inter??s p??blico.
It is a fundamental duty of the State to guarantee that the population live in a healthy and free of contamination in atmosphere, where the air, the water and the foods satisfy the requirements of the proper human life development.
Concessions for the exploitation of the ground, the subsoil, the forests and for the use of water ???, will be inspired by the social welfare and the public interest.
South Africa (Constitution, 1996)
Everyone has the right to have access to
1. health care services, including reproductive health care;
2. sufficient food and water; and
3. social security, including, if they are unable to support themselves and their dependents, appropriate social assistance.
The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of these rights???"
Uganda (Constitution, 1995)
The State shall protect important natural resources, including land, water, wetlands, minerals, oil, fauna and flora on behalf of the people of Uganda.
The State shall endeavour to fulfil the fundamental rights of all Ugandans to social justice and economic development and shall, in particular, ensure that???
all Ugandans enjoy rights and opportunities and access to education, health services, clean and safe water, decent shelter, adequate clothing, food, security and pension and retirements benefits.
Venezuela (Constitution, 1999)
Art??culo 127 (2do. parrafo)
Es una obligaci??n fundamental del Estado, con la activa participaci??n de la sociedad, garantizar que la poblaci??n se desenvuelva en un ambiente libre de contaminaci??n, en donde el aire, el agua, los suelos, las costas, el clima, la capa de ozono, las especies vivas, sean especialmente protegidos, de conformidad con la ley
Todas las aguas son bienes de dominio p??blico de la Naci??n, insustituibles para la vida y el desarrollo. La ley establecer?? las disposiciones necesarias a fin de garantizar su protecci??n, aprovechamiento y recuperaci??n, respetando las fases del ciclo hidrol??gico y los criterios de ordenaci??n del territorio.
El Estado promover?? la agricultura sustentable como base estrat??gica del desarrollo rural integral, y en consecuencia garantiza la seguridad alimentaria de la poblaci??n;???
El Estado proteger?? los asentamientos y comunidades de pescadores o pescadoras artesanales, as?? como sus caladeros de pesca en aguas continentales y los pr??ximos a la l??nea de costa definidos en la ley.
Zambia (Constitution, as amended in 1996)
The State shall endeavour to provide clean and safe water.